# How to Solve a Rubik’s Cube 3x3x3

## Introduction

Rubik’s Cube was created by Erno Rubik, a professor of architecture in Budapest, in 1974 as a means of teaching his students about spatial relationships. At the Nuremberg Toy Festival in 1979, the toy specialist Tom Kramer agreed to sell the Rubik’s Cube, then known as the Magic Cube, to the rest of the world. It grew into the most popular toy in the world, with over 350 million units sold. Even though it is sold as a toy, it is more of a work of art to Rubik.

While the Rubik’s Cube comes in many variants, from 2x2x2 to 5x5x5, the original version is the 3x3x3 cube. The original version has 11! × 8! × 212 × 38 (around 43 quadrillion) possible states and is the version covered in this study.

## A- Introduction to the different parts of the cube

The pieces that make up the Rubik’s cube are called cubes. (The cube within the cube, much like in Inception).

There are 3 elements types of cubes:

• The centers (or central pieces), in the middle of each face of the cube. They are 6. Each has only one sticker (or color).
• The corners are located at the corners of the cube. There are 8, each has 3 stickers.
• The edges (or sides), are located between each pair of adjacent corners. There are 12. Each has 2 stickers.

Not all cubes sold in stores have the same colors, but always:

• The white side opposes the yellow
• The blue side opposes the green
• The red side opposes the orange

To remember this, add yellow to the color to find its opposite.
ex:

White +  yellow yellow

Blue  yellow  green

## B- Easy scoring of moves

Here’s how to do it. You should always look at the cube in relation to its front face.

Face rotation:

Rotation of one of the 3 vertical rows:

Rotation of one of the 3 horizontal rows:

To be as efficient as possible, a cuber will move his cube as little as possible and save his movements. So, to rotate the face to the right, just use your index finger. Same for the rotation of the 1st horizontal row. Use the directory for the bottom horizontal row.

## C – Methods to resolve the Rubik’s cube 3×3

### 1 – Layer Method

• The simplest method to solve the 3 × 3 Cube is named Layer Method .
• Rubik’s Cube consists of 3 layers (One layer = one row)
• Here are the 3 steps :

#### 1-1: Make the 1st layer

To make the Rubik’s Cube , you will have to choose a color among the 6. Obviously, choose a color that exists on your cube. Do not choose a mahogany or fuchsia pink color (unless you have an original and very ugly Rubik’s Cube with these colors).

So choose one of the 6 faces of the cube.

>> The goal is to complete a full face .

It is advisable to always start with the same side, usually the white side . (on some cubes, the white side is black [unlike the King of Pop])

To find out where the white side is (very often the brand label is stuck on it):

>> Look for the white center piece.

Indeed, the 6 centers never move, they are fixed . These 6 centers form an axis around which all the other parts rotate.

Once the choice of the face is made, you must create a cross :

##### The Cross

The objective of this step is to make a white cross . This cross is made up of 4 parts called “edges” (not to be confused with the bone spine which is found in the flesh of certain fish). An edge is made up of 2 colors.

Be careful, each piece has only one precise location on the cube.

Thus, the red-white edge when properly placed is located precisely on the white face AND on the red face.

If 2 colors are reversed:

Here is the formula to follow:
– Place the part to be reversed in front of you (white side always up)
– Then:

Mnemonic: History of the sliding door :
(The algorithm is done with the left hand EXCEPT to slide the door )

I turn the handle with my left hand (even if I am right handed)

I open the sliding door

I go inside

I close the sliding door (yes I have an exciting life)

When the cross is done, it’s time to tackle the corners:

##### Corners

The corners are the last step (after the cross) which will allow you to finish the first face.

To go down / up a corner towards the face:

• Turn the cube face down on the white ground .
• Orient the cube so that the desired piece is at the top right .

Then :

The Anglo-Saxons call this algorithm: “sexy move”. It is very pleasant to do. Repeat it 1000 times to hold it back and you will hold an anti-stress cube in your hands.

Did you know ? If you repeat 6 times (like the 6 faces of a cube) the same algorithm, your cube returns exactly to the configuration it was before the 1st algorithm.

Once the first face is completed, your cube will look (roughly) like this:

So it’s time to move on to step 2: Creating the 2nd layer.

#### 1-2: 2nd line: History of the Belge

To build the 2nd line, all you have to do is place the 4 edges . Indeed, the centers are already placed by default (since they do not move).

Remember:

• An edge is made up of 2 colors.
• Each piece of the cube has its own location.

Thus, the orange-green edge must necessarily be located between the orange side and the green side.

To perform this task, it is necessary to know an algorithm. For the morons of us who don’t know what an algorithm is, here’s a simple definition:

ALGORITHM: Sequence of formal rules explained by a mathematical type representation and corresponding to a necessary sequence.

If this sounds complicated to you, a much easier to understand mnemonic device allows us to memorize this thing easily. It is…

the history of the Belgian

1. Place the white side up to the sky.
2. The T in front of you.
3. The edge to be placed at the base of the T.

In our example: the Belgian is the Orange – green edge.

To complete the line -> it must therefore go to the right .

But he’s Belgian …

After a few manipulations, you should arrive at this:

It is finally time to move on to the final step, namely, the 3rd row.

#### 1-3: 3rd and last row

This is the longest stage, but not necessarily the most difficult.

It will be necessary :

1. Create the cross
2. Orient this cross (story of the chair)
3. Place the right corners (story of the little Curious)
4. Orient the right corners (Bouncy chair)
##### Creation of the cross

The cube is turned over, white face down . We are going to take care of the opposite side, ie the yellow side .
If the cross is not already created, locate one of the following two patterns:

a) The horizontal bar

This algorithm is easy, it is about a sexy move (right hand) surrounded by two rotations of faces (start right hand and the last 2 moves left hand).

b) The comma

Here are two mnemonics (to choose from) that I suggest: I have named,

The severed hand in the future :

1. I am going to the future in search of adventure
2. An automatic laser sliding door opens
3. I pass my hand to check if it is safe
4. But the door closes on my hand and the cup
5 . My hand falls to the ground

If you don’t like the algorithm (I’m my favorite) try this one:

Back to the future :

1. I go to the future
2. I open a box with my right hand
3. I take out the super important paper
4. I close the box with my left hand (since I have the paper in my right hand)
5. I slide the paper in my pocket
6. I go back to the past

Attractive ! You have just created a cross. Go to 2. Orientation of the cross.

##### Orientation of the cross

The cross is created, but that is not enough, it is not yet oriented. Once again, it is a question of correctly positioning the edges.

The cube is always held yellow face up (and white face down ).

The following algorithm allows you to move all the edges, except the one facing us, a quarter of a turn clockwise.
>> To help us we will use a story,

The history of the chair:

1)  The Belgian gets up from his chair suddenly
2)  x2 As he is in good shape, he goes very far
3)  But his chair falls (less in good shape than the Belgian in the chair)
4)  The Belgian comes back a little (x1) on its not
5)   Straighten his chair
6)   Returns to stand in front (x1) his chair
7)  if down again

After a few manipulations, the cross is oriented:

##### Placement of the correct corners

With the edges in place, it’s time to take care of the corners. To put each corner in its right place (regardless of orientation), you need to:

– Look for a well positioned corner . That is to say, a corner whose 3 colors correspond to the neighboring (adjacent) faces.

– Place this corner at the top , on the right (yellow side at the top).

– Use the Story of Madame Curieuse :

1.  Her friends on the left go up
2.  Madame Curious goes to see them

3.  Her friends on the right go up in turn
4.  Madame Curieuse goes to see them (too predictable the girl)

5.  The girlfriends on the left are fed up and go downstairs
6.  Madame Curieuse comes back to say goodbye to them

7.  The girls on the right go down
8.  Madame Curious FINALLY returns to her place

##### Orientation of good corners (end)

Here is the last step.

– Place two incorrectly oriented corners at the top right (on the right side).

– Use the bouncing chair algorithm: (this is the story of the chair + the same story of the left hand)

The history of the chair:

1)  The Belgian gets up
2)  x2 Goes very far
3)  His chair falls
4)  He retraces his steps a little
5)  Straightens his chair
6)  Comes back to his chair
7)  Sits down

8)  He gets up with his left foot
9)  x2 Goes very far
10)  The chair falls
11)  But the Belgian is fed up and goes even further
12)  The chair bounces
13)  The Belgian continues on his way
14)  The chair falls

And there you have it, the cube is finished!

Congratulations , you have reached the end of the tutorial.
Also, don’t think you’re done with the Cube, solving it is one thing, setting speed records is another.

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